Selasa, 05 Januari 2010


Gerund is ing form that is used like noun.

1. The functions of Gerund

1) Gerund as Subject

We put ing form in subject Example:

Running is my favorite sport. Crying can't solve the problem. Helping other person is good habit.

2) Gerund as Object

a. Object certain verb.

b. Object of preposition.

c. Object of complement.

a. Object certain verb (avoid, deny, enjoy, mind, ... Etc)


He denies stealing my money,

Do you mind taking me home?

b. Object of preposition (interested in, afraid of... etc)


I am interested in reading a magazine.

She is afraid of faceting him.

c. Object of Complement Example:

My bad habit is sleeping in the morning.

His favorite activity is going to somewhere.

3) Gerund as Noun Modifier

Telling about what is noun used for.... ?


Meeting hail ® The hall for meeting

Swimming pool

Drinking water

Shopping bag

Fishing pool

Sleeping bag

Surfing board

Parking area

Drawing book

Slimming tea


We need sleeping bag to go camping.

You must park your car in parking area.

4) Gerund as short prohibition

no hunting no spitting

no parking no cheating

no climbing no loitering

no smoking no hiking

5) Gerund after preposition

A. Free preposition (by, with, in, after, before, besides, .... etc)


Without reading book we can’t improve our knowledge.

Let's open our studying by reading Basmalah.

Besides studying my hobby is fishing

B. Connected Preposition

a) Verb + Preposition

accuse of insist on

approve of keep on

confess to put off

count on rely on

depend on succeed in

dream about think of

give up worry about

go on bottom


He was accused of stealing.

Don't rely on studying only without praying.

b) Adjective + Preposition

accustomed to interested in .

afraid of successful in

capable of sorry for

fond of tired of

intent on clever at


I am tired of waiting for him.

She was afraid of meeting her teachers.

Is he fond of playing football

c) Noun + Preposition + Gerund

art of importance of

chance intention of

method of opportunity of

habit of possibility of

honour of reason of


Everybody has chance of leading this country.

Will you get honour of meeting our President ?

6) Gerund after adjective

(Sweet, good, bad, wonderful, horrible, nice, delicious, useful, useless, .... Etc)

We put gerund after adjective (Adjective + Gerund)


I always get sweat smiling from my teacher.

She bought beautiful painting.

Do you have nice cooking?

7) Gerund after Possessive Adjective

(My, your, our, her, his, their, John's, Tomi's, ....etc)

We put gerund after possessive adjective (Possessive Adj + Gerund)


Our teacher appreciates our coming

We need his explaining everyday.

Do you like her smiling?

8) Gerund after Demonstrative Pronoun / Question Words.

(a, an, the, this, that, these, those, what, which, whose, how many)


The meeting is very boring.

I found a painting in room yesterday.

Which painting do you want to buy?

Whose speaking is that?

How many meeting does she want?

What writing has the writer written?

9) Gerund after the other verb

There are four kinds:

a) Several verb can be followed by ing form and have passive meaning.

Those verbs are; want require

| need deserve


· This radio needs repairing

· Do the trees need watering?

· The naughty student deserves punishing.

Note : It's forbidden to put object after ing form

b) Several verbs must be followed by ing form and have active meaning.

Those verbs are:

admit discuss recall

advise enjoy recollect

anticipate finish recommend

avoid keep resent

complete mention suggest

consider mind resist

delay miss risk

deny quit

tolerate understand


· Everybody avoids getting all mistakes.

· He dislikes studying gerund.

· Let's keep studying.

· I don't tolerate cheating in exam

c) Several verbs can be followed by either an ing form or an infinitive, but they have different meaning.

Those verbs are:

forget regret

go on stop

like try


· Forget + V ing

Forget thing thai (someone) has done. '


I forget giving you money

· Forget + to infinitive

Forget thing that (someone) is going to do,


1 forget to give you money.

· Go on + V ing

Continue what someone has been doing.


She goes on teaching; even she doesn't get good salary.

You go on studying English.

· Go on + to infinitive

Change or move to something new.

It can be the same activity but the subject of activity.

Is different or maybe different activity.


We go on to study Participle,

· Like + V ing

Enjoy something


She likes singing.

· Like + to infinitive

Choose to many choices.


He likes to swim on the river.

· Remember + V ing

Remember thing that someone has done


I remember going to Bali.

· Remember + to infinitive

Remember thing that someone is going to do


I remember to go to Bali.

· Regret + V ing

Be sorry for what someone has done / has happened.

Telling happens in the past.


He regrets giving you money

· Regret + to infinitive

Be sorry for what someone is going to say, means, we don't do yet, usually has connection with some bad news.


He regrets to tell him that she doesn't love him anymore

· Stop + V ing

Stop thing that we are doing,


We stop studying.

· Stop + to infinitive

Stop thing to do something / make a break.


I stop to smoke.

· Try + V ing

Make an experiment to know the result / effect.


He tries disturbing her.

· Try + to infinitive

Make an effort / attempt tc do something difficult.

We don't know the result / We don't care about the result.


I try to study Mathematic.

· Several verbs can be followed by either ing form or to inf and have same meaning.

Those verbs are:

start love

begin hate

continue prefer


· 1 start to cry

· I start crying

· It begins raining

· It begins to rain.

· He prefers studying to going out

· He prefers to study than to go out

10) Gerund after time

(tonight, last week, yesterday, Saturday, Friday, daily, weekly, monthly, annual, … Etc)


· 1 hate Saturday meeting.

· Midnight shouting woke me up

· Daily speaking can improve our vocabularies.

11) Gerund after number.

a. Cardinal number: 1, 2, 3, ... etc.


We have three meetings in this month. He has two paintings.

b. Ordinal number: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, .... Etc.


The first calling makes me nervous.

I will send you away after the third warning

c. Fraction number: ½, ð, ¼ , ¾ ....etc.

Example ;

1 have done a half working

We have finished one third writing.

Gerund after Idiomatic Expression.

-It's no use- - Can't help

-It’s no fun - Can't stand It's no fun

-It's no good - Would you mind It's worth

-Go + V ing

Example : It's no use trying to advise him.

It's no fun going out with him,

It's worth reading many gods.

Is it any use helping you ?

Note : S + to be + worht + V ing Passive Meaning

Example : This house is worth buying.

• Can't help : We do something by ourselves that we don't realize.

Example : I can't help crying, because that news

• Cad' 1 slHiid . We don 'I waul lo do bul someone forces us.

Example : 1 can't stand teaching, even he is naughty student.

Go + V ing —

Example :

Go dancing

Go shopping

Go window shopping

Go surfing

Go camping,...... etc



1. Active Present Gerund

Example : I like/walking'in the morning. '

2. Passive Present Gerund Being + V 3

Example :

Are you afraid of being left by your friends ?

He admitted being hit by them.


1. Active fast Gerund Example : She regrets having sent him a letter.

2, Passive Past Gerund Example :

Shincan admits having been insulted by his friends

Exercise :

Translate into English !

1. Saya tidak akan membiarkan anda menyontek dalam ujian tulis ini.

1. Apakah membaca banyakk buku dan belajar dengan giat adalah kegemaranmu ?

3. Apakah anda menyangkal telah menelantarkan seorang anak kecil ?

4. Penyanyi terkenal yang salah satu albumnya terjual laris menyesal telah melecehkan para wartawan yang menanyainya.

5. Bukankah orang yang berjiwa mulia tak akan keberatan membantu orang yang sangat membutuhkan ?

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